The glossary includes the key terms related to the topics that Orienta4YEL addresses. Its design is structured according to core topics, specific topics and action topics, seeking to facilitate how they may be best understood. In this regard, each of the topics is accompanied by a brief comment that clarifies and contextualises the meaning.

Basic terms

Compulsory Education
Compulsory Education refers to legally-required obligatory schooling.
A plurality of human conditions and factors (such as, but not limited to, cultural, socio-economic, learning styles, abilities, physical, sensorial, gender identifications, sexual orientations, ethnicities, age, religious and political ideologies) that characterize people and contexts.
From a social standpoint, it will guarantee that all citizens have the same rights, for example, in accessing free education. In school education, an equal system could be defined as one in which all students are treated equally – for example, a system in which all students are given the same opportunities to perform, exposed to the same school curriculum, taught by teachers with equivalent expertise, held to the same learning expectations and provided with equivalent levels of resourcing and support.
Respect and appreciation of individuality, adapting and creating the best conditions for each one to achieve their maximum potential. Equity should not be confused with equality. Equity gives each student what he or she needs to perform at an acceptable level. While equality aims to create parity in opportunities, equity aims to also create parity in outcomes.
Formal education
Formal education includes all the levels of an educational system that is highly institutionalised (whether provided by the public, private or third sector) leading to certification and qualifications that are recognized by the state.
An approach going beyond the idea that all children should be educated in the same way, stressing equity and including everyone. The objectives of inclusion are for all students to develop to their full potential as well as enabling participation and involvement within the wider community.
Inclusive education
The process by which a school attempts to achieve inclusion by recognising all pupils as individuals and reconsidering and restructuring its curricular, its organizational elements and provision and allocating resources to enhance equality of opportunity and outcomes.
Informal learning
Informal learning, refers to learning that occurs in daily life through exposure to one’s environment. Learning occurs whether or not there is a deliberate choice to do so, and is realised through everyday activities and interactions within the contexts of work, family and leisure. Unlike formal and non-formal learning, informal learning is not institutionalised.
Non-formal education
Non-formal education is any type of organized learning outside of formal education systems which is intentional and planned by an educational provider. It is less institutionalised and hierarchical than formal learning. Whilst it can lead to certification and qualification, this is neither necessary nor in many cases the core purpose of non-formal education.
Youth/Young people
People who are at a stage of social life that begins at 12 years of age and extends to 21 years old.

Specific terms

Disadvantaged learners
Learners who, by their circumstances and/or conditions, are likely to experience difficulties that reduce their chances of progress and achievement.
Dropout is understood as an interruption to the participation of an individual (or a group) in a study programme.
Early leavers
Learners who leave an education or training programme (formal or non-formal) that is legally required without completing it.
Early leaving
ESL is understood as the term for when young people have attained (at best) lower secondary education. However, they are no longer in formal or non-formal education that is legally required, nor do they receive training of any kind.
Educational stakeholders
In education, the term stakeholder typically refers to anyone who is invested in the welfare and success of a school and its students, including administrators, teachers, staff members, students, parents, families, guardians, specialized technicians, community members, local business leaders, and elected officials such as school board members, city councillors, and state representatives.
NEET (Not in Education, Employment, or Training)
A young person who is no longer in the education system and who is not working or being trained for work.
Protective factor
Internal or external conditions or variables or support at the social, institutional, educational, cultural, biological, psychological, family or community level that is associated with a lower likelihood of problem outcomes or that reduces the negative impact of a risk factor on problem outcomes and create opportunities for success in a given context or situation.
Risk factors
Something that increases risk or susceptibility to a negative outcome. The construct is related to a deprivation of opportunities and disadvantageous situations that can lead to students’ exclusion from their socio-educational environments.
School failure
A process where a student slips increasingly behind his/her peers and gradually disconnects from the educational system. It is also related to a situation that manifests failure by the student or the school itself in achieving the previously defined objectives.
Social and educational support organizations
Because the barrier between formal and nonformal is so diffuse and difficult to define, we propose the term Social and Educational support organizations. This refers to institutions beyond schools that provide educational support, educational guidance, and other guidance and resources in order to achieve educational success.

Action terms

Orientation (Guidance vision)
Strategic and sustainable processes of supporting students’ educational, social, emotional, personal and vocational development in order to prevent early leaving and promote success.
Orientation support mechanisms
A set of activities, measures and practices that form part of the student’s guidance processes, such as tutorial support, mentoring, etc.
Second chance measures
Actions that provide students with a pathway to return to education and potentially acquire a qualification. Second chance measures can take different forms. Some provide another chance to acquire a formal qualification. Other second chance measures do not lead directly to a formal qualification; these aim to support young people in the process towards returning to formal learning or moving into employment.
Second Chance Training Programs
A specific form of second chance measures. These include Basic VET programmes targeted to early leavers in order to aid their re-integration into the educational system.
Tutorial Action
A specific orientation support mechanism in order to guide the student’s educational, social, emotional, personal and vocational development. The tutorial action requires the engagement of a tutor.
Vocational Education and Training (VET)
Training programs aimed at technical training and the teaching of skills required for a professional activity.
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